Nuffnang Ads

Tuesday, January 31, 2012

NASA Orion Spacecraft Program




Drawing from more than 50 years of space flight research and development, Orion is designed to meet the evolving needs of our nation’s space program for decades to come. As the flagship of our nation’s next-generation space fleet, Orion will push the envelope of human spaceflight far beyond low Earth orbit. Orion may resemble its Apollo-era predecessors, but its technology and capability are light years apart. Orion features dozens of technology advancements and innovations that have been incorporated into the spacecraft’s subsystem and component design.



To support long-duration deep space missions of up to six months, Orion engineers developed a state-of- the-art spacecraft with unique life support, propulsion, thermal protection and avionics systems. Building upon the best of Apollo and shuttle-era design, the Orion spacecraft includes both crew and service modules, a spacecraft adaptor, and a revolutionary launch abort system that will significantly increase crew safety.

Orion’s crew module is much larger than Apollo’s and can support more crew members for short or long- duration spaceflight missions. The service module is the powerhouse that fuels and propels the spacecraft as well as the storehouse for the life-sustaining air and water astronauts need during their space travels. The service module’s structure will also provide places to mount scientific experiments and cargo.






Orion is capable of supporting low Earth orbit missions or transporting astronauts on a variety of expeditions beyond low Earth orbit – ushering in a new era of space exploration. Orion can carry astronauts to the International Space Station, deliver cargo for resupply, and remain on orbit under its own power supply to serve as an emergency escape vehicle for the crew onboard.


ORION CREW EXPLORATION VEHICLE




























Launch Abort System

The launch abort system, positioned on a tower atop the crew module, activates within milliseconds to propel the crew module to safety in the event of an emergency during launch or climb to orbit. The system also protects the crew module from dangerous atmospheric loads and heating, then jettisons after Orion is through the initial mission phase of ascent to orbit.



Crew Module

The crew module is the transportation capsule that provides a safe habitat for the crew, provides storage for consumables and research instruments, and serves as the docking port for crew transfers. The crew module is the only part of Orion that returns to Earth after each mission.


Service Module.

The service module supports the crew module from launch through separation prior to reentry. It provides in-space propulsion capability for orbital transfer, attitude control, and high altitude ascent aborts. When mated with the crew module, it provides the water, oxygen and nitrogen needed for a habitable environment, generates and stores electrical power while on-orbit, and maintains the temperature of the vehicle’s systems and components. This module can also transport unpressurized cargo and scientific payloads.




Spacecraft Adapter

The spacecraft adapter connects the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle to the launch vehicle and protects service module components.




ORION TEAM MEMBERS ACROSS THE UNITED STATE OF AMERICA







Supported by team members across the country, Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company leads the development effort as NASA’s prime contractor for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. The Lockheed Martin-led industry team includes a network of major and minor subcontractors and small businesses working at 88 facilities across the country. In addition, the program contracts with more than 500 small businesses across the United States through an expansive supply chain network.

Lockheed Martin facilities in California, Colorado, Florida, Louisiana and Texas help support Orion’s design and development work. Additionally, Lockheed Martin has independently invested in a network of Exploration Development and System Integration Labs that spans from Arizona to Virginia. These labs conduct early risk mitigation and system–level analyses to help reduce project costs, schedule and risk. Subcontractor facilities have been instrumental in the design, fabrication and testing of myriad components and subsystems for Orion.

ATK’s facilities in Utah and Maryland tested the abort and attitude control motors for Orion’s launch abort system. Aerojet’s propulsion center in California has provided ongoing testing and verification for Orion’s powerful motors and engines and United Space Alliance’s Thermal Protection Facility in Florida has painstakingly handcrafted all of Orion’s thermal tiles. Hamilton Sundstrand’s engineers in Connecticut, Illinois and Houston have developed Orion’s intricate life-support and power systems, while Arizona-based Honeywell has developed intelligent avionics and software that support data, communications and navigation.

In addition to large aerospace contractors, small businesses from all socioeconomic interests have provided specialized skills and engineering services critical to Orion’s development. Risk management, life cycle cost, systems analysis, and propulsion trade studies are just a few examples of their expertise. Additionally, small businesses support all of the spacecraft’s systems with design, development and manufacturing of advanced space flight hardware.




ORION TESTING



Safer Sea Operations And Recovery

The post-landing Orion recovery test is a series of spacecraft evaluations performed off the coast of Florida by the Constellation Program Ground Operations Project recovery operations team and Orion in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Defense. The tests were designed to assess the performance of the Orion capsule mockup and recovery operations forces in post-landing conditions at sea. Test results will be used to help NASA understand the astronauts’ experience in rough waters and will assist the Agency with evaluating procedures, determining supplies, and developing training for rescue and recovery operations







Orion Parachutes Test

The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System is designed to ensure a safe landing for astronauts returning to Earth in Orion’s crew module. Orion’s system is made up of eight parachutes: two mortar-deployed drogues for stabilization and initial speed reduction; three pilots; and three main parachutes, which further reduce the speed of the module to its final descent rate of 25 feet per second. While the Orion system inherits some of its design from Apollo-era parachutes, there are several new advances.

Since Orion’s crew module is larger, the drogue chutes are deployed at a higher altitude to provide increased vehicle stability. Orion’s parachute system was designed with crew safety in mind: it can withstand the failure of either one drogue or one main parachute, and it can ensure a secure landing in an emergency, as witnessed during the successful Pad Abort 1 flight test. Before the crew actually flies in the vehicle, the system will undergo additional tests to validate the design and demonstrate reliability.

The NASA Johnson Space Center Engineering Directorate manages the parachute system development with design and testing support from the Agency’s contractor partners. Parachutes are designed and fabricated by Airborne Systems in Santa Ana, California; the mortars are provided through Lockheed Martin by General Dynamics Ordinance and Tactical Systems located in Seattle, Washington; and project management is performed by Jacobs Engineering’s Engineering Science Contract Group in Houston, Texas. Parachute system testing is performed at the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground in Yuma, Arizona















Orion Launch Abort System Test

Orion’s launch abort system is designed to provide a safe, reliable method to evacuate crewmembers in emergency situations. Mounted over the Orion crew module, the launch abort system will propel the module away from the rest of the vehicle if an abort is required. The Pad Abort 1 flight test that occurred in May 2010 at New Mexico’s White Sands Missile Range was the first in a series of planned in-flight demonstrations of the three new solid rocket motors and parachute landing system, and served as a successful pathfinder for Orion system integration and ground operations procedures.








NASA celebrated a major milestone in the development of Orion’s launch abort system by completing ground tests of the system’s full-scale motors. The three new solid propellant rocket motors: an abort motor, an attitude control motor, and a jettison motor, work to ensure crew safety when the launch abort system is activated during emergency operations. The completion of the tests allowed for the 2010 demonstration of the entire launch abort system – Pad Abort 1.







In April 2008, the jettison motor became the first full- scale rocket motor test for the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The jettison motor is a solid rocket motor designed to separate the launch abort system from the crew module on a normal launch and to safely propel the abort system away from the crew module during an emergency. The static test firing was conducted by Aerojet Corporation in Sacramento, California.


In November 2008, NASA completed the 5.5-second ground test firing of the launch abort motor. The abort motor will provide a half-million pounds of thrust to lift the crew module off the launch vehicle, pulling the crew away safely in the event of an emergency on the launch pad or during the first 300,000 feet of the rocket’s climb to orbit. The December 2009 attitude control motor test, performed at ATK’s facility in Elkton, Maryland, was the sixth in a series of ground tests of Orion’s attitude control motor system. The attitude control motor is charged with keeping the crew module on a controlled flight path after it jettisons, steering it away from the launch vehicle in the event of an emergency, and then reorienting the module for parachute deployment.




Pad Abort 1 Test

The launch abort system includes three new solid propellant motors, which all performed flawlessly during Pad Abort 1. During the flight test operations, the abort motor fi red with approximately 500,000 pounds of thrust to drive the crew module from the pad; the attitude control motor fired simultaneously and provided the nearly 7,000 pounds of force required to maintain stability and vehicle trajectory, propelling the launch abort system to a height of approximately one mile; and the jettison motor separated the crew module from the launch abort system in preparation for parachute deployment.


Saturday, May 21, 2011

Aircraft Carrier : Welcome Aboard USS George H.W Bush CVN-77




General Characteristics:  
 
o   Awarded: January 26, 2001
o   Keel laid: May 19, 2003
o   Launched: October 9, 2006
o   Commissioned: January 10, 2009
o   Decommissioned: January 2059
o   Builder: Northrop Grumman Newport News Shipbuilding Co., Newport News, Va.
o   Propulsion System: two nuclear reactors
o   Main Engines: four
o   Propellers: four
o   Blades on each Propeller: five
o   Aircraft elevators: four
o   Catapults: four
o   Arresting gear cables: three
o   Length, overall: 1,092 feet (332.85 meters)
o   Flight Deck Width: 257 feet (78.34 meters)
o   Area of flight deck: about 4,5 acres
o   Beam: 134 feet (40.84 meters)
o   Draft: 38,4 feet (11.7 meters)
o   Displacement: approx. 100,000 tons full load
o   Speed: 30+ knots
o   Planes: approx. 85
o   Crew: Ship: approx. 3,200    
o   Air Wing: 2,480
o   Armament: two Mk 29 NATO Sea Sparrow launchers, two Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM) System
o   Homeport: Norfolk, Va. 






Namesake

CVN-77 is named after George Herbert Walker Bush (born 1924), 41st President of the United States of America (1989-1993). As President and Commander-In-Chief Mr. Bush led the United States and a coalition of 30 nations during the Gulf War (1991) that ended Iraq's invasion of Kuwait and liberated the people of the small Persian Gulf nation.  He is also a US Navy Pilot around year 1942-1945; (LT(JG) George H.W. Bush, USNR)



About USS George H.W Bush

USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) is the tenth and final Nimitz class supercarrier of the United States Navy.It is named for the 41st President of the United States George H. W. Bush, who was a naval aviator during World War II. Bush's call-sign is Avenger, after the TBM Avenger aircraft flown by then-Lieutenant George Bush in WWII.

Construction began in 2001 by the Northrop Grumman Newport News shipyard, at a cost of $6.2 billion USD and was completed in 2009. It is home ported at Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia. USS George W Bush, the Final Nimitz Carrier.


Construction of CVN 77



 An artist’s conceptual drawing of the U.S. Navy’s next aircraft carrier USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) named in honor of the 41st President of the United States. U.S. Navy graphic.


Arlington, Va., The Pentagon, Dec. 9, 2002— Former President George H.W. Bush (center), the 41st President of the United States examines a model of CVN-77, the U.S. Navy’s 10th Nimitz-class aircraft carrier officially named USS George H.W. Bush by The Honorable Gordon England, Secretary of the Navy, at a ceremony held in the Pentagon. Photographed from left to right are Adm. Vern Clark, Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), Gordon England, Secretary of the Navy, former President George H.W. Bush, Senator John Warner, R-Va., and General James L. Jones, Commandant of the U.S. Marine Corps. U.S. Navy photo by Chief Photographer’s Mate Johnny Bivera.


Newport News, Va., Sep. 6, 2003— Adm. Vern Clark, Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), makes remarks during the keel laying ceremony of the George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) aircraft carrier. U.S. Navy photo by Chief Photographer's Mate Johnny Bivera



Newport News, Va., Mar. 3, 2003— The first construction unit of the Pre Commissioning Unit (PCU) George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) settles into the drydock, where the ship would be constructed. The ship would feature numerous engineering and technology improvements, and was slated to be the 10th and final Nimitz-class nuclear powered carrier. Photo by Mr. John Whalen Northrop Grumman Newport News



Newport News, Va., Sep. 6, 2003— Former President George H.W. Bush accompanied by his daughter and ship's sponsor Doro Bush Koch, wrote his initials with chalk to a plaque which was then traced by a welder’s torch and permanently affixed to the keel of the ship. During the ceremony, President George H.W. Bush authenticated the keel by announcing, “the keel has been truly and fairly laid." U.S. Navy photo by Chief Photographer's Mate Johnny Bivera



The rudders for the aircraft carrier George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) are in place during construction, June 17, 2004. Photo by Chris Oxley, Northrop Grumman Newport News



Newport News, VA, Dec. 8, 2004 — Construction work on the Pre Commissioning Unit (PCU) George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) at Northrop Grumman Newport News








Newport News, VA, Mar. 8, 2005 — The 700-ton bow unit, the final keel section of the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier George H. W. Bush (CVN-77), is lowered into place in the dry dock at Northrop Grumman Newport News shipyard. George H. W. Bush was built using modular construction, a process where smaller sections of the ship below the waterline are lowered into place in dry dock. CVN-77 was the second carrier to have the new bulbous bow design that provides more buoyancy to the forward end of he ship and improves hull efficiency



PCU George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) under construction, August 3, 2005. Photo by Chris Oxley, Northrop Grumman Newport News



The bow of the aircraft carrier George H. W. Bush (CVN-77) under constuction at Northrop Grumman Newport News, August 22, 2005. Photo by Chris Oxley



The aircraft carrier PCU George H. W. Bush (CVN-77) under construction at Northrop Grumman Newport News, August 29, 2005. Photo by Chris Oxley



The island of the aircraft carrier PCU George H. W. Bush (CVN-77), under construction at Northrop Grumman Newport News, November 2005. Photo by John Whalen



The aircraft carrier PCU George H. W. Bush (CVN-77) under construction at Northrop Grumman Newport News, November 28, 2005. Photo by John Whalen



The Pre Commissioning Unit (PCU) George H.W. Bush's (CVN-77) island upper levels are placed upon the lower levels to complete the island structure, March 9, 2006. Photo by Mr. John Whalen



The upper bow unit of the Pre Commissioning Unit (PCU) George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) is lifted into place at Northrop Grumman Newport News, Newport News, VA, March 15, 2006. Photo by Mr. John Whalen



The upper bow unit of Pre Commissioning Unit (PCU) George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) is lifted into place at Northrop Grumman Newport News, Newport News, VA, March 15, 2006. Photo by Mr. Rick Thompson



The upper bow unit of Pre Commissioning Unit (PCU) George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) is lifted into place at Northrop Grumman Newport News, Newport News, VA, March 15, 2006. Photo by Chris Oxley



The propellers of the Pre Commissioning Unit (PCU) George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) are installed, April 26, 2006. Photo by Mr. John Whalen




 CVN-77 island, painted and sitting on platen at dry dock 12, June 23, 2006. Photo by Mr. Chris Oxley



The completion of the last of 162 super lift evolutions scheduled during the construction of the tenth and last Nimitz-class aircraft carrier, George H.W. Bush (CVN-77). The lift placed the ship's 700-ton island superstructure in position on the flight deck, July 8, 2006. Photo by Mr. John Whalen










The 41st President of the United States George H.W. Bush, left, and the prospective commanding officer for the aircraft carrier George H. W. Bush (CVN-77), Captain Kevin E. O'Flaherty, both place a personal set of Naval Aviator wings under the 700-ton island superstructure, July 8, 2006. The aviator wings were used to symbolize a naval custom, called "stepping the mast," which dates from antiquity and consists of placing coins under the step or bottom of a ship's mast during construction. One belief from Greek mythology is that should the ship be wrecked during passage, the coins would ensure payment of the crew's wages for their return home. Since at least the construction of USS Constitution in the 1790s, this tradition of placing coins or other items of significance has been passed on as a symbol of good luck for U.S. Navy ships. U.S. Navy Photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Robert J. Stratchko




Commander, U.S. Fleet Forces Command, Commander, U.S. Atlantic Fleet Admiral John B. Nathman, left; the 41st President of the United States, George H.W. Bush, center; and the prospective commanding officer for the aircraft carrier George H.W. Bush (CVN-77), Captain Kevin E. O'Flaherty, attend the last of 162 super lift evolutions scheduled during the construction of the ship. Northrop Grumman Newport News Shipyard, Newport News, Va., 8 July 2006. U.S. Navy Photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Robert J. Stratchko




Aboard Pre Commissioning Unit George H.W. Bush (CVN-77), the ship's namesake and 41st President of the United States, George H.W. Bush, left, observes the super lift Island landing ceremony, the last of 162 super lifts scheduled during the construction of the ship, placing the 700-ton superstructure on the ship's flight deck. Northrop Grumman Newport News Shipyard, Newport News, Va., 8 July 2006. U.S. Navy Photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Robert J. Stratchko




PCU George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) with island house. Photo by Chris Oxley




Pre Commissioning Unit (PCU) George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) shown in dry dock, September 12, 2006. Photo by Mr. Chris Oxley




This is a picture of CVN-77's (PCU George H. W. Bush) island the day of her Christening at Newport News, VA, October 7, 2006




Pictured left to right, President of the United States George W. Bush, former President and ship's namesake George H. W. Bush, and President of Northrop Grumman Newport News Shipyard Mr. Mike Petters, look on as ship's Sponsor Doro Bush Koch christens CVN-77, the aircraft carrier George H.W. Bush, October 7, 2006. "I would like to join my father, my brother, my family in saluting not only the men and women who built this remarkable ship, but also the courageous men and women who will soon man it," Koch said before christening the ship. Photo by Mr. Chris Oxley




PCU George H. W. Bush (CVN-77) afloat, October 9, 2006. Northrop Grumman Newport News photo by Chris Oxley




PCU George H. W. Bush (CVN-77) move from Dry Dock 12 to OB1, October 9, 2006. Northrop Grumman Newport News photo by Ricky Thompson.




Fitting out




Newport News, Va., January 25, 2008 — Former President George H.W. Bush prepares to signal the launch of two "dead loads" off the flight deck of the Precommissioning Unit (PCU) George H. W. Bush (CVN-77). "Dead Load" launches test the ship's catapult systems ability to launch aircraft. U.S. Navy photo By Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Susan Caraballo










Airman Ryan Miller (left) Quartermaster 1st Class Christopher Dorner and Aviation Boatswain's Mate (Handling) Airman Ryan Jones, assigned to the Pre-Commissioning Unit (PCU) George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) prepare to be the first crewmembers to hoist the American flag over the fantail of the ship, at Norfolk, Virginia, 8 August 2008. Sailors had recently began eating and sleeping aboard the 10th and last Nimitz-class aircraft carrier, under construction at Northrop Grumman Newport News Shipyard. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Nicholas Hall



CAPT Kevin O'Flaherty, commanding officer of the Pre-Commissioning Unit (PCU) George H.W. Bush (CVN-77), addresses the crew during a ribbon-cutting ceremony celebrating the opening of the ship's galley and crew's mess, at Newport News, Virginia, 11 August 2008. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Lawrence M. Shannon










CU George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) and USS Carl Vinson (CVN-70) docked at Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding in Newport News, Va., 20 August 2008. (Carl Vinson was undergoing her only refueling and complex overhaul in a 50-year life span.)




Operations Specialist Seaman Apprentice Steven J. O'Conner stands lookout while the aircraft carrier George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) transits to Naval Station Norfolk, 23 December 2008, in preparation for her commissioning. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Jeffrey M. Richardson




Boatswain's Mate Seaman Apprentice Charles Norris polishes a bell aboard the ceremonial quarterdeck of the aircraft carrier George H.W. Bush (CVN-77), Norfolk, Va., 7 January 2009. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Nathan A. Bailey












 Active, In Commission, 2009

  

   
Northrop Grumman Newport News completed builder's trials of USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) on 16 February 2009. Photo by John Whalen, Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding.




 NOB Norfolk, VA, 2 October 2010.